Saturday, February 24, 2007

movie meme

...this is a response to John's movies that will remain favorites forever, correct?

here's my 10 (in no particular order)

1. My Dinner with Andre
2. Matewan
3. Natural Born Killers
4. Wonder Boys
5. High Fidelity
6. Like Water For Chocolate
7. The Legend of 1900
8. The Lord of the Rings
9. Magnolia
10. Waking Life

I might change some of those by tomorrow...I'm thinking of lots of other films, but like John has a category of best skate films, I think I might need some sub-categories as well.

Jared, what was the name of that movie we watched the last time I saw you...Schizopolis?

Friday, February 23, 2007

one more short film for jared hayes and/or andy peterson set to the musical stylings of Das EFX

another short film for jared hayes set to the music of the Lord of the Rings soundtrack scored by Howard Shore

short film for jared hayes

movie meme

1. henry fool (hartley)
2. requiem for a dream (aronofsky)
3. punch drunk love (p.t. anderson)
4. yojimbo (kurosawa)
5. volver (almodovar)
6. all about my mother (almodovar)
7. the royal tenenbaums (wes anderson)
8. amelie (jeunet)
9. singin in the rain (?)
10. titus (julie taymore)

Thank you petey pete's for selling me some of these!!

I tag Jwhips, Guthrie, Dunlap, Armentrout, Koeneke, Coops....

And for those who care ala LRSmith, Booms, and Peterson, here is my top five baseball movies:

1. the natural
2. bull durham
3. major league 1
4. field of dreams
5. a league of their own
runners up: bad news bears, cobb, 8 men out, sandlot, all the other major leagues
Criteria: I want plot and real looking baseball...that said the main reason the runners up didn't place higher is because of the lack of skill in the actual playing of baseball, looking at worst cartoonish and at best like actors.

Tuesday, February 20, 2007

Sunday, February 18, 2007

Letters to Underwood

Dear Underwood,

It was a high-pitched screaming. The semi-colon is often accompanied by a conjunctive adverb. What they hear are linen masks mouths-mimicking sounds. Shivering shoulders question the boundaries of incidents. Elle wears a hospital gown and surgical mask when we fuck. I witnessed a car accident from my bedroom window, but do not feel like participating in fault. Give me a high E. This is dissection, without it we are soundproof wooden blocks with iron wiring. Finish writing him before she returns. The paramedics found him with a detached exhaust pipe encasing his erection. Elle is not used to the east coast. Watching the snowfall she deteriorates into a microbial puddle. I am too young for the postmodern narrative. Rub her head until she falls asleep to dream of California incubated. Her spine is mesostic, an unstructured diary. Press firmly against perennial to prevent ejaculation. What happens to money in wishing wells? Lay on your back deeply desecrated by trash media. Some of us were abandoned at birth. Drawing naughty sketches, she tells me how bored she is with her bedroom curtains. I became vegetarian because of that thumping sound, followed by retraction and fading groan. An empty hospital bed faces a transparent wall. Luscious.

Saturday, February 17, 2007

Body and Society

Emotional Consumption: Mapping
Love and Masochism in an Exotic
Dance Club

The commodified relationships that occur within an exotic dance club are
sexually charged interactions between a customer who buys time, personal
contact and erotic fantasy from an exotic dancer.1 For an occasional customer,
these interactions are infrequent, titillating and entertaining – and are most often
associated with events such as a 21st birthday, a bachelor party or ‘a guys’ night
out’. These customers place demands on dancers for services and attention, but
many dancers find these men annoying, at times fun and most often harmless
(Egan, 2003; Liepe-Levinson, 2002). Interactions between dancers and customers
shift and become more complex as men move from being an occasional customer
to a regular customer. A regular customer is a man who comes to the club on a
frequent basis (at least once a week) to see a particular dancer with whom he has
formed an erotic and romantic attachment. The regular spends large amounts of
time and money (in the form of paying for her services) on a dancer. Moreover,
regulars frequently give gifts such as roses, computers, fur coats, plastic surgery
and cars to dancers with whom they are in relation (Egan, 2003).2 These relationships
are saturated with power, sexual desire and fantasy, all of which move
Body & Society © 2005 SAGE Publications (London, Thousand Oaks and New Delhi),
Vol. 11(4): 87–108 DOI: 10.1177/
throughout the interactions between dancer and regular in multiple ways (Egan,
2003; Frank, 1998, 2002).

With regulars, dancers must perform emotional labor to a far greater extent
than with the occasional customer (Frank, 1998). Regulars provide sustained and
lucrative income and therefore must be made to feel good over a prolonged
period of time. Dancers develop a phenomenological bond with their regulars
and discuss the complexities and nuances of the various aspects of these men’s
lives. In the exotic dance club the relationships between dancers and regulars, not
unlike other romantic relationships, are sites where the mundaneness of everyday
life intertwines with emotional intimacy and sexual desire. Conversations about
work problems, marital dissatisfaction, misbehaving children and stress, as well
as erotic titillation and the desire for a lap dance are common facets of these interactions
(Egan, 2004; Frank, 2002; Wood, 2000). Unlike other romantic relationships,
however, the interactions between dancers and regulars are governed by
the rules of the club, which are dictated by the owners and predicated upon
monetary exchange, and stipulate acceptable types of erotic performance.3 For
example, although a dancer may perform a lap dance where she literally grinds
against the regular’s lap with various parts of her body, the customer must keep
his hands to his side at all times during this interaction.4

Dancers develop deeper engagements with regulars than other customers and
often develop feelings of care, friendship and even trust (Frank, 1998). In these
relations, regulars engage in a fantasy wherein their relationship is perceived as
one that is atypical of the commodified framework of the club and thus perceive
their relations as real. In part this is true, as dancers at times truly do enjoy the
company of their regular, but also false as these relations are squarely situated
within a commodity exchange (Egan, 2003). Regulars fetishize the performance
of emotional labor of dancers. As such, it is imperative that dancers, in order to
continue earning the money regulars provide, perform emotional labor as
authentically as possible (Rambo-Ronai, 1992). I am particularly interested in
one aspect of this relationship – love, and how regular customers discuss feelings
of love for the dancers with whom they were in relation. The love regulars
profess falls into the category of being in love, which is conceptualized as inherently
narcissistic (Verhaeghe, 2000).5 As in other modes of work which involve
emotional labor (i.e. nurses, air flight attendants, psychologists or waitresses)
dancers’ attentiveness to customers is an important aspect of their job, particularly
to get tips (Hochschild, 1983). However, unlike other emotional laborers,
dancers must fit into and reproduce the erotic fantasies of the customer, performing
the role of what one dancer described as ‘a whorish wife’.6

Regulars perceive their love for dancers as real, which produces profound
88 ¦ Body and Society Vol. 11 No. 4 feelings of both elation and despair in the regular. The primary question guiding this inquiry is why is it that men fall in love in an exotic dance club? Furthermore, what type of love is it? Lastly, how is this form of masculine love related to larger psycho-social structures? This article emerges from 18 months of ethnographic work between 1998 and 2000 in two exotic dance clubs in the New
England area, where I performed participant observation. This research was
formed from my own experiences as a researcher and a dancer, as well as from
observations and semi-formal interviews with other dancers and regular
customers. In order to illuminate the complex interactions in the club, I draw
from psychoanalytic, feminist7 and post-structural theory for the analysis of my
observations, experiences and informal conversations.

Sociological literature on exotic dance (see Barton, 2002; Bruckert, 2002;
Erikson and Tewksbury, 2000; Forsyth and Deshotels, 1997; Liepe-Levinson,
2002; Murphy, 2003; Rambo-Ronai, 1992, 1993; Wesley, 2003) has, for the most
part, focused on the experiences of exotic dancers themselves, or only on the
cursory customer (for exceptions see Brewster, 2003; Frank, 2002). For example,
Carol Rambo-Ronai (1992) explores the performance of feigned authenticity as
part of the emotional labor performed by exotic dancers and the challenges this
produces for the dancer. Customers desire ‘the real thing’ with a dancer, so
dancers must feign authenticity in multiple and often emotionally tiring ways
(Rambo-Ronai, 1992). Craig Forsyth and Tina Deshotels (1997) examine the ways
in which women give meaning to their work, and the symbolic interactions with
customers and management which form dancers’ experiences of their work.
Katherine Liepe-Levinson (2002) investigates the performance of self of male and
female exotic dancers, and the ways in which these performances are subject to
the objectifying gaze of the customer and how dancers resist these gazes.
Moreover, through her research she finds that exotic dance is not simply a site of
exploitation of women and men, but is a site of agency and resistance. The importance
of understanding the labor of women who work as exotic dancers is crucial
to a further enumeration of women’s work and emotional labor in multiple
settings. However, to comprehensively understand exotic dance as a site of investigation,
it is also sociologically imperative to understand the meanings and experiences
of its consumers. To this end, emotional consumption also needs to be an
area of sociological study.

Emotional Consumption

The sociology of consumption has most often focused on large-scale consumption
patterns of populations (Bourdieu, 1984; Emmison, 2003; Schor, 1998), the
Emotional Consumption ¦ 89 semiotics of consumption via advertising (Goldman and Papson, 1996, 1998; Goldman et al., 2003), the environmental degradation of consumption (Schor, 1998) or the ways in which consumption can culturally reinscribe the intentions of producers (Koptyoff, 1986). This research is most often based on inanimate objects and the desires, alienating effects or resistive possibilities of consumerism. This focus is due to the way in which commodities themselves have been theorized. Marx (1971) theorized commodities as objects imbued with use value, which can be exchanged in discrete economic transactions. Marx viewed this as an endemic aspect of capitalism and part and parcel of a system which alienates its populations from their own labor and the goods they produce. However, as anthropologists have shown, the exchange of objects is a facet of all cultures in one-way or another (Koptyoff, 1986). Culture inscribes meaning onto commodities and thus infuses economic transactions with moral and cultural estimations which in turn affects which objects fall into acceptable sites of economicexchange (Durkheim and Mauss, 1963; Ewick, 1993; Koptyoff, 1986). Moreover, what becomes acceptable as a commodity shifts over time and is usually designated as such due to its cultural status – as infinitely interchangeable; whereas objects that are deemed unique or sacred (in the Durkheimian sense) are not viewed as acceptable commodity objects (Durkheim and Mauss, 1963).

A guiding theme in this literature is a one-way relationship between the
consumer and the object that he or she consumes – for example, a type of
clothing might offer someone a particular identity (i.e. cool, rebellious or
professional). This formation of self is due to the cultural meaning attached to
the object (which is formed by the producer and marketed via advertising)
thereby assuming de facto the ontology of the object as inert or passive. Cultures
can inscribe different meanings onto an object, so that, for example, what a water
heater means in Boston (a necessity) is very different from what a water heater
means in Antigua, Guatemala (a luxury item found in very few homes). However,
the assumption is that what makes a commodity shift meaning is a culture; the
object itself has no part in this process.

The study of consumption becomes more complicated when the product
being sold is another human being’s services in live interaction. This shift makes
consumption and the interactions between consumer and commodity a dynamic
interaction wherein a consumer may engage in a process of emotional attachment
– and thus emotional consumption. In such cases, pure economic exchange
begins to merge with a sense of relationality. Emotional labor requires service
providers ‘to offer emotion as part of the service itself’ (Hochschild, 1983: 5),
which produces non-reciprocal meanings for customers and laborers. Customers
project a form of relationality that is typically found in non-commodified
90 ¦ Body and Society Vol. 11 No. 4 relations onto a commodified context. Obviously, this is a skewed perception and often times one not shared by both parties. However, to understand service in a more complex fashion we need to attend to the ways in which various people are subject to and subvert forms of emotional labor, as well as examine how the consumer may blur the distinctions between economic exchange and feelings of

Emotional consumption, then, is the other side of emotional labor. It is a
function of the interaction between two people – a consumer and a service
provider. Although one might argue that men fall in love with their cars and
women love their clothes, this differs from emotional consumption in a service
industry. A car might be beautiful and run like a gem, but it is not involved in a
dialectic relation where it speaks, reassures, encourages or discourages the owner.
Emotional consumption involves an affective relation that emerges within social
interaction. A woman may project meaning onto her favorite leather jacket, but
the jacket itself has no part in either reaffirming or dissuading her projection –
although her friends who see her on Saturday night can tell her that she looks
great or that her jacket does not work. Owning an object and consuming service
labor differ significantly in that you can own an object but you cannot own the
person providing the service. Therefore, in the service economy property itself is
displaced in the transaction. Moreover, the difference between the salesperson
selling a car and the person selling a service is that it is emotion itself that is being
consumed which is transitory and thus, does not last after the exchange is over
(Hochschild, 1983).

Transference provides the framework for understanding the consumption of
service labor as a dynamic and intersubjective experience. Psychoanalysts use the
term transference to understand the patient’s relationship and projections onto
the therapeutic process and the analyst (Egan, 2005). Transference involves the
displacement of affect from one idea (or one person) to another (Lacan, 1977a).
Patients displace the affect they feel in one context onto the interactions between
themselves and the clinician (the service provider) (Lacan, 1977a). Transference
is an effect of the dialectical interactions that take place between an analyst and
an analysand. Although, one could argue that part of consuming Nike sneakers
is also consuming the male (e.g. Michael Jordan) or female (e.g. Mia Ham) athlete
who promotes the products, consuming a service wherein a person interacts,
touches and dances for you further complicates the psycho-social dynamic.
Attending to the affective components of consuming another person illuminates
production and consumption as a polyvalent interaction wherein both participants
continuously reframe, reinscribe and project meaning onto commodified
interactions. By reconceptualizing consumption, we can shift the focus from a
Emotional Consumption ¦ 9 one-sided relation (that is projected onto all forms of consumption) to a dynamic experience that is influenced by both the emotional labor of the worker and the emotional investments of the consumer.

In viewing emotional consumption as dynamic and intersubjective we see that
consumption involves both social interactive and psychic investments on the part
of both parties. Emotional consumption produces a phenomenological givenness
or intelligibility between the consumer and the person performing
emotional labor. Additionally, emotional consumption involves projection,
transference and identification wherein the consumer projects fantasies onto the
commodity which have little to do with the person providing the service being
consumed, and which have both compassionate and violent possibilities.8 Therefore,
emotional consumption can be thought of as a social psychoanalytic
phenomenon, thus opening a sociological investigation into how, for example, a
consumer could fall in love with the human whose service they are buying. Male
regulars’ emotional consumption is anything but static and involves both social
and psychic complexities which create the emotional attachments they feel in
their interactions with female dancers.

Friday, February 16, 2007

Some Notes

Pre-emergence, post-emergence—before or after evolution—the unmediated reality—an optical instrument: the museum as colonial practice—art history—where does art just become a product of art history

Bodies—even bodies of discourse are relegated to position and ideology

Essences are bullshit

The dialogic is a continually evolutional situation

Bodies are always the point—the body being erotic, sensual, and discursive—does this imply a Delay of some sort?

ThePriceIsRight as training mechanism for young capitalist consumers

What is the duration of streaming? mass of information—access to information—to the streaming—how do we accept, deny, believe in the stream

The encounter—rapid, short—transformative—open

Explosions of discourse—regimes of discourse---evolution and evolutional discourse relegated to its own ideologies

Rate of linguistic evolution—translation—cultural storage of knowledge—what if this is articulated in a public responsive sphere: environment

Process—resposive, evolutional spaces vs. product individuating experiences—when might we begin to experience our own evolution, see it as it becomes manifest

Ethics—situational and contextual—epistemelogical—what does survival mean in this?

Once meaning becomes fixed it becomes a commodity—the museum is fooling us

Direction of evolution—rate—as applied to a narrative or trajectory—are trajectory and narrative synonymous?

“What is rushing through a biology?”—Bhanu Kapil

Meaning is communally constructed process—

Bodies—how do we define them? who is we?

Moving from lacan’s thinking about representation—what happens if desire moves from a representational model to a performative model

Poeisis—praxis—pedagogy—the act of performing—performing implicit and explicit rhetorics of acknowledged or unacknowledged yet constant ideology

Is this how to undercut the model of modernism in popular culture?

Trinh T. Minh-ha—Inappropriate/d other—refracting lens—what is this evolutionarily?

Mapping of interference—haraway

What do I refuse?—I refuse the static. Anything that does not move. Things that superimpose their structures (ultimately false, yet undeniably effective, affective, in their body blind making capabilities) onto reality. Whatever that is? I refuse the idea that knowledge is static. Stasis is refused. Refuse the soda; refuse the fluid— A kiwi. Yet words seem static. Not hypertext! How do I make my words move, evolve, Etc—

Rhythmic forces are stronger than the theme—how is the fluid affected during the winter—trace it back to the embryo— Pre-embryo— They won’t cross each others toxic area!

This is how a body changes: rearticulation, representation—press enter, change maps—

The pre-contact zone is changing both actors—Haraway—the social-epistemic thought frame added to the non-human and interhuman, beings and objects, corporate or otherwise—In terms of the evolution of knowledge or knowledges, my new body is a constant rearticulation, is a continuing process of transformation with as many converging actors in their own constant performance of variating similar repetitions compiled by confluences of ideologies

The archive, museum, the storage of cultural knowledge—evolving towards—interactive public spaces—internet museologies—virtual worlds both tenuous and infinite

Nature is highly articulate—How will the amodern hybrids of healing practices cohabitate in the emerging social body— What was that—

Translating codes—internet—code switching—language bridging and coalition building—and a willingness between worlds previously held apart

In a narrative—linear, one moment to the next versus a vertical orientation—exploding one moment—from multiple perspectives etc—

How do I provide infinite permutations within a text that has seemingly rational yet false time, space, linear qualities—the book as museum—

The internet (world wide web) is the everlasting body that is continually in a transformative process—this is also a
metaphor—macro-micro-cosm/os—thinking about thinking about thinking about stuff—pata-meta-—

History writing discourse as similar to psychoanalytical discourse—but how do these discourses understand, uses, think about representing ambiguities, marginalities etc—what are the assumptions of power underlying—

When is art— Art as a when ethics being situational blah, blah—

Derrida, chronology is ideology: (me) evolution——religious view of time—what does this change— What is a religious view of time—

Contact—the pre space—is there anything outside the system of reference—is there any meaning outside of context— That is a good question.

Is evolution a vehicle on the desire highway— The desire to live to reproduce: what is the evolution of desire in a biological sense, in a capitalist sense etc.—

How do we create spaces of rate increased evolution that does not negate or project ideology— This is ultimate in considering the other and all the other psycho analytic mumbo about linguistics and desire— is this a reflexiveness— is reflexiveness a word not worthy of the attempt: is anthropology attempting anything relevant— The interdisciplinary nature of the field, eh—

Is evolution measured in degrees— Duchamp’s dust raising—can evolution be measure by bodily effects— Tangible and in the moment——collision, repulsion, collusion, is duchamp have my picture of evolution— The dust raising—is this a different sort of emergence—and thus another—yet different interaction with the other—and isn’t this what I desire!

What part of the cell reaches out to another—structure of a body—narrative—desire—environment—context

Monster Process: repetition and variation: in an embodied process of representation and variation the copying and practice of random or pseudo random constriction: is this how velocity is created or rate—is this the monstrous thing—what illimits the human——diffraction—dialogic—power—ideology—regimes—discourse—etc..

Monster Process: repetition and variation: takes a position on process of identity: no universals: continued performance of a constantly variable transformation or a repetition of a performance that is continually variable: can this embody ambiguity in process/product: interlope: boundarylessness: the repetition of a monster—

Sentience of the streaming: spectral

What do I desire in my writing life— Shadow realities: places I keep myself from: what of myself as a structure of systems: is that what a human is—

To be more human, cyborg

What tears matter——how do we then put the matter back together—the metaphoric tearing of basic elements

Presumptions and assumptions of our own ideology—is there any TRUE meaning—this is what reading is all about--$ value—doctors—diagnosis/treatment—fixity of sign and meaning—look at a body—look at art etc—a new discourse or aesthetics—what makes discourse, is $ a motivation or is it $ intermingled with the
economics of the people in the discourse—the notion of interpretations becomes professionalized—benefits— Cons—

Style— A question of bibliography and the manifestations of an ideological bibliography and a bibliography ideology—a collage or culmination of discourse effects—being/body as art—transformative vs.
static—does style justify and define the self in society—does art like the body produce the discourse it is relegated to

Power—given through discourse—doctor, body—doctor, art—inheritance of power—discourse—knowledge--$-- does discourse always commodify—

Wolfman—the moon—the water—pre-emergence—what factors pre-exist the wolf—of the wolfman—

Unpredicability—nature—ephemeral art—suburban or urban—art by accident—vegas baudrillard—spectacle guy debord

Hypnogogic hallucination—part of the brain is still dreaming after you wake

Writing the pre-body—in biological time(?) can we be the cyborg—genderless—not bound to an original—genderless but desirefull—not asexual but multiply sexual—

It is not the force of the individual but the question of population—gradual processes—no change to the eye—what does that mean——what about the context of desires——yes—not the argument of desire—what is accuracy in prebecoming or prebiology—compression, contraction, expansion of cellular matter—the tides—slime mold of the earth body annotate the streaming

2nd person—the set-up—hypertext—choose your own control—

Architecture—how do I construct a multiple, permutable, destination or roof or view or perspective, albeit a willingly uncontrolled view or roof or perspective— Oh yeah and sensor! Beyond the eyes—this is my trajectory—where will the drama of play lead to—what does this say or imply about how to present the subject or more clearly the "I"—alternate suggestions of narrative subject in order to create limitless pathways throughout a set or set-up world of language

Octavia Butler’s Bloodchild—the body—art—alien impregnation—social nature of this—what is it to defer—differ—diffract codes—spaces and species—precontact zones

Cycles of manipulation, constriction—random prolifereations—erasure of erasures—cut-ups of cut-ups—copies of copies—membrane attachments—embody repetition and variation on macro-micro-levels—in process and in product(whatever that is)

Is the monstrous part the randomness of the evolution of disparate parts connected to a single membrane—representations of various elements in a reconfigured membrane—a leaf copied is now paper——what
is a thing without a name—

Where is ethics in this discussion—Alarm—the architecture of the art world—interconnected networks dealers, consumeres, curators, has become primary relegating the work itself to a secondary—value—objects in the world become knowable—managerial corporate capitalism—process thing machine—the modern department
store—the modern museum—the modem museum—cities efficient machines for production—huge upheavals of people in the industrial revolution—evolution here— Rate— Industry creates serfdom—enter the price is right and the American dream, manifest destiny etc—art provides a secular religion to deal with the giant upheavals of society and identity brought by industry--the dialogic alternative—a ThePriceIsRight proposed hypothesis that changes in the hands of viewers—

Art makes religion and the world possible—art problematizes the religion and the world—the pharmakon

What is needed for a body to rearticulate itself—extra appendages, image— what is adaptation in writing, cellular movement, sight, smell, sound, touch, what matter—when are you expressing more by what you’re not vs. expressing by what you are—signification—the other—replication—can I write a mutating virus—memory—dormancy—activate the dormant virus—is a monster just a non defined non closed system—Haraway through me—the body of rearticulation of socially interactive bodies, dormant and activemystical, biological, material, pathological, ideological, human and non-human histories—this is an act of transformative mutation—a
monster is my liver—my liver is a monster—how do I rearticulate these social actions in my textual experiences——vicuna/jaar—do I create a create a monster or body that points to the rearticulation of social and thus inevitable transformations or do I create a text that tries to

Tuesday, February 13, 2007

Monday, February 12, 2007


the educating process

Teacher to student at lunch: "What do you mean by 'real' when you say 'real' food?"
Student to teacher: "You know what, I really don't feel like hearing your shit today."

boxed wine

dreamt of an argument between punctuation marks with dodie bellamy as moderator of the debate...

Saturday, February 10, 2007

Whether or not Andrew Peterson wants his work posted, I am posting it.

FROM Moving Day


In the poem "The Painters," on page 30,
the last line has been omitted.
It should read:

unpacking my heart with words.


Yet it still came out
the way
it was supposed to:

Hair beneath tape
That fastened
those words packed
onto our musics

books & beneath
arms carried out

Wednesday, February 07, 2007

i just received my first paycheck from Buffalo State College. Horray for too little money for the amount of work i put in. yeah to teachers everywhere...what a sad and stressful world.

Friday, February 02, 2007

new combinations are continually

Anorexia nevosa is
a disorder not a,

The writer might have changed (my motorcycle
broke down. As alway another bacteria-styled
sex. Yes i believe them, us to their architecture.
The entire novel, embroidered with gowns, a
single mouse in the plastic radio. My father
played catcher when I pitched. Like all rapidly
growing, living systems, church bells rang off
in the distance. A palm full of vitamins are noun
phrases that rename nouns. Read the proofs.
Garbage Pail Kids are to Billy Collins as a
nervous branch flew from love. Jake and I
used to make our stuffed tigers fuck always
arguing who had to be the girl.

Then the wheelbarrow stressed the semicolon
in an independent clause.